Documenta

Documenta 3

27 Jun - 05 Oct 1964

documenta III
27 June - 5 Okcober 1964
Kassel

"Art is what major artists make.“ This was the motto of documenta 3 in 1964. Werner Haftmann again tried to justify his hypothesis on the primacy of pre-War Modernism and for the last time the show centered on the older generation of artists with selected works, documenting their exemplary role for contemporary art. However, no claim was made to completeness; the artists were purely selected according to "quality and relevance". The special feature of d3 was that it no longer entailed showcasing various groups of artists, but hinged on the artist as an individual. The freedom and independence of art was something that could no longer be construed in terms of styles and schools, but arose from the individual creative act of an outstanding artist, although Haftmann continued to adhere to his notion of "abstraction as world language" and neglected those most recent trends in contemporary art which ran against the grain of this theory.

This approach was demonstrated as a model in particular in the new exhibition on hand drawings included in the documenta for the first time and which Werner Haftmann considered the "most intimate and personal form of artistic expression“. Some 500 exhibits were on show, chosen to trace the development of Modern art, starting with Impressionism. They included works by Cézanne and van Gogh, Chagall, Picasso and Dix, Kokoschka, Feininger and Paul Klee, de Chirico, Max Ernst and Miró, right up to drawings by young Europeans such as Sonderborg, Vedova, Lismonde and Lucebert. Based at the rebuilt Gallery of the Schöne Aussicht (now the Neue Galerie), which, for the first time since the War, supplemented the Fridericianum and Orangerie exhibition venues , the presentation of drawings was intended to offer insights into the personal creative process - and was the real sensation at d3.

Arnold Bode's concept for the ever more intensive and evocative staging of the works – intended, among other things, to enable the "visual grasp of what makes creative people creative" – reached a new spectacular climax at documenta 3. Concentrated cabinets customized to house individual works took the reception of art to the point of comprehensive spatial experiences. For example, three pictures by US painter Sam Francis, which he had created for the stairwell at Kunsthalle Basel, were presented in an hexagonal hall with natural light from above, giving them almost a sense of holiness. The culmination of Bode's setting was the presentation of three large-sized paintings by Ernst Wilhelm Nay, suspended at a spectacular angle from the ceiling of a cabinet built specially for them. It was the zenith of Bode's concept – which, as art historian Walter Grasskamp once suggested, Bode might have felt competed with and anticipated the spatial installations and environments that first appeared on the scene at that same time.


Artistic Director:
Arnold Bode

Artists:
Valerio Adami
Robert Adams
Hans Aeschbacher
Afro (Afro Basaldella)
Yaacov Agam
Pierre Alechinsky
Horst Antes
Karel Appel
Arman (Armand Fernandez)
Kenneth Armitage
Hans Arp
René Auberjonois
Joannis Avramidis
Kenjirō Azuma
Francis Bacon
Ernst Barlach
Saul Bass
Willi Baumeister
Herbert Bayer
Thomas Bayrle
Jean Bazaine
Max Beckmann
Hans Bellmer
Lucian Bernhard
Janez Bernik
Miguel Berrocal
Joseph Beuys
Max Bill
Julius Bissier
Roger Bissière
Karl Oskar Blase
Umberto Boccioni
Kay Bojesen
Pierre Bonnard
Lee Bontecou
Constantin Brâncuşi
Georges Braque
Rodolphe Bresdin
Donald Brun
Peter Brüning
Klaus Burkhardt
Alberto Burri
Will Burtin
Pol Bury
Alexander Calder
Jean Carlu
Anthony Caro
Carlo Carrà
A. M. Cassandre
César (César Baldaccini)
Paul Cézanne
Lynn Chadwick
Marc Chagall
Avinash Chandra
Eduardo Chillida
Giorgio de Chirico
Roman Cieślewicz
Emil Cimiotti
Antoni Clavé
Jean Cocteau
Bernard Cohen
Harold Cohen
Paul Colin
Pietro Consagra
Constant (Constant Nieuwenhuys)
Lovis Corinth
Corneille (Cornelis van Beverloo)
Willem Hendrik Crouwel
Miodrag Djuric (Dado)
Radomir Damnjanović
Jean David
Alan Davie
Robyn Denny
André Derain
Charles Despiau
Otto Dix
Eugène Dodeigne
Piero Dorazio
Jean Dubuffet
Marcel Duchamp
Raoul Dufy
Dušan Džamonja
Charles Eames
Thomas Eckersley
Dick Elffers
Martin Engelman
Michael Engelmann
James Ensor
Hans Erni
Max Ernst
Joseph Fassbender
Gerson Fehrenbach
Lyonel Feininger
Lothar Fischer
Klaus Flesche
John Forrester
Sam Francis
Otto Freundlich
Horacio Garcia Rossi
Rupprecht Geiger
Vic Gentils
Nicholas Georgiadis
Karl Gerstner
Quinto Ghermandi
Alberto Giacometti
Werner Gilles
Hermann Goepfert
Roland Goeschl
Vincent van Gogh
Leon Golub
Julio González
Arshile Gorky
HAP Grieshaber
Franco Grignani
Juan Gris
George Grosz
Waldemar Grzimek
Hans Gugelot
Constantin Guys
Günter Haese
Étienne Hajdú
Otto Herbert Hajek
Hiromu Hara
Hans Hartung
Karl Hartung
Erich Hauser
Josef Hegenbarth
Bernhard Heiliger
Anton Heyboer
Hans Georg Hillmann
Jochen Hiltmann
George Him
Herbert Hirche
Paul Van Hoeydonck
Rudolf Hoflehner
Wolfgang Hollegha
Max Huber
Friedensreich Hundertwasser
Jean Ipoustéguy
Arne Jacobsen
Bernhard Jäger
Paul Jenkins
Alfred Jensen
Jasper Johns
Allen Jones
Asger Jorn
Yusaku Kamekura
Wassily Kandinsky
Herbert W. Kapitzki
Edward McKnight Kauffer
Ellsworth Kelly
Zoltán Kemény
Walter Maria Kersting
Günther Kieser Phillip King
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
R. B. Kitaj
Paul Klee
Yves Klein
Gustav Klimt
Franz Kline
Aleksander Kobzdej
Hans Kock
Fritz Koenig
Oskar Kokoschka
Takashi Kōno
Willem de Kooning
Harry Kramer
Norbert Kricke
Klaus Kröger
Alfred Kubin
Rainer Küchenmeister
Wifredo Lam
André Lanskoy
Berto Lardera
Henri Laurens
Fernand Léger
Wilhelm Lehmbruck
Jan Lenica
Julio Le Parc
Herbert Leupin
Jan Lewitt
Richard Lin
Jacques Lipchitz
Jules Lismonde
El Lissitzky
Wilhelm Loth
Morris Louis
Lucebert (L. G. Swansweijk)
Bernhard Luginbühl
Heinz Mack
August Macke
James McGarrell
Aristide Maillol
Alfred Manessier
Franz Marc
Gerhard Marcks
Marino Marini
Albert Marquet
Étienne Martin
André Masson
Gregory Masurovsky
Henri Matisse
Roberto Matta
Almir Mavignier
Jean Messagier
James Metcalf
Hans Mettel
Otto Meyer-Amden
Brigitte Matschinsky-Denninghoff
Henri Michaux
Hans Michel
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Josef Mikl
Joan Miró
Paula Modersohn-Becker
Amedeo Modigliani
Piet Mondrian
Pitt Moog
Henry Moore
Giorgio Morandi
François Morellet
Richard Mortensen
Robert Motherwell
Bruno Munari
Edvard Munch
Kazumasa Nagai
Jacques Nathan-Garamond
Ernst Wilhelm Nay
Eva Renée Nele
Rolf Nesch
Louise Berliawsky Nevelson
Ben Nicholson
Erik Nitsche
Marcello Nizzoli
Georges Noël
Isamu Noguchi
Emil Nolde
Eliot Noyes
Richard Oelze
Kenzo Okada
Christian d'Orgeix
Alfonso Ossorio
Eduardo Paolozzi
Jules Pascin
Victor Pasmore
Alicia Penalba
Constant Permeke
Celestino Piatti
Pablo Picasso
Otto Piene
Pierluca
Edouard Pignon
Giovanni Pintori
Filippo de Pisis
Serge Poliakoff
Jackson Pollock
Giò Pomodoro
Carl Pott
Concetto Pozzati
Heimrad Prem
Dieter Rams
Robert Rauschenberg
Odilon Redon
Josua Reichert
Bernard Réquichot
Germaine Richier
George Rickey
Gerrit Rietveld
Jean-Paul Riopelle
Günter Ferdinand Ris
Larry Rivers
Auguste Rodin
Giuseppe Romagnoni
Willem Sandberg
Giuseppe Santomaso
Antonio Saura
Raymond Savignac
Egon Schiele
Hans Schleger (Zéró)
Oskar Schlemmer
Joost Schmidt
Wolfgang Schmidt
Nicolas Schöffer
Paul Schuitema
Bernard Schultze
Emil Schumacher
Kurt Schwitters
Scipione (Gino Bonichi)
William Scott
Gustav Seitz
Jason Seley
Georges Seurat
Gino Severini
Ben Shahn
Paul Signac
Mario Sironi
David Smith
Francisco Sobrino
K. R. H. Sonderborg
Jesús Rafael Soto
Pierre Soulages
Chaim Soutine
Jannis Spyropoulos
Toni Stadler
Nicolas de Staël
Anton Stankowski
Joël Stein
Hans Steinbrenner
Klaus Steinbrenner
Magnus Stephensen
Kumi Sugai
Richard Süßmuth
Marko Šuštaršič
Graham Sutherland
Waldemar Świerzy
Arpad Szenès
Rolf Szymanski
Jun Tabohashi
Shinkichi Tajiri
Ikkō Tanaka
Antoni Tàpies
Hervé Télémaque
Fred Thieler
Jean Tinguely
Mark Tobey
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Harold Town
Otto Heinrich Treumann
Hann Trier
Heinz Trökes
Jan Tschichold
Günther Uecker
Hans Uhlmann
Reva Urban
Andreas Urteil
Suzanne Valadon
Italo Valenti
Victor Vasarely
Emilio Vedova
Bram van Velde
Maria Elena
Vieira da Silva
Jacques Villon
Paul Voss
Édouard Vuillard
Wilhelm Wagenfeld
Hans Wegner
Hendrik Nicolaas Werkman
Brett Whiteley
Carl Heinz Wienert
Gerhard Wind
Fritz Winter
Tapio Wirkkala Wols
Fritz Wotruba
Paul Wunderlich
Ryūichi Yamashiro
Sōri Yanagi
Yvaral
Stanislaw Zagorski
Piet Zwart

 

Tags: Valerio Adami, Robert Adams, Yaacov Agam, Pierre Alechinsky, Horst Antes, Karel Appel, Arman, Hans Arp, Francis Bacon, Ernst Barlach, Afro Basaldella, Willi Baumeister, Herbert Bayer, Thomas Bayrle, Max Beckmann, Hans Bellmer, Joseph Beuys, Max Bill, Julius Bissier, Umberto Boccioni, Arnold Bode, Pierre Bonnard, Lee Bontecou, Constantin Brancusi, Georges Braque, Peter Brüning, Alberto Burri, Pol Bury, Alexander Calder, Anthony Caro, Carlo Carrà, César, Paul Cézanne, Lynn Chadwick, Marc Chagall, Eduardo Chillida, Giorgio de Chirico, Jean Cocteau, Lovis Corinth, Corneille, Dado, Robyn Denny, André Dérain, Otto Dix, Piero Dorazio, Jean Dubuffet, Marcel Duchamp, Raoul Dufy, Charles Eames, James Ensor, Max Ernst, Lyonel Feininger, Sam Francis, Rupprecht Geiger, Karl Gerstner, Alberto Giacometti, Hermann Goepfert, Vincent van Gogh, Leon Golub, Julio González, Arshile Gorky, HAP Grieshaber, Juan Gris, George Grosz, Günter Haese, Otto Herbert Hajek, Hans Hartung, Erich Hauser, Bernhard Heiliger, Paul van Hoeydonck, Wolfgang Hollegha, P. Horst, Friedensreich Hundertwasser, C.T. Jasper, Alfred Jensen, Jasper Johns, Allen Jones, Asger Jorn, Wassily Kandinsky, Ellsworth Kelly, Phillip King, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, R.B. Kitaj, Paul Klee, Yves Klein, Gustav Klimt, Franz Kline, Oskar Kokoschka, Willem de Kooning, Norbert Kricke, Alfred Kubin, Wifredo Lam, Henri Laurens, Fernand Léger, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Jacques Lipchitz, El Lissitzky, Morris Louis, Heinz Mack, August Macke, Aristide Maillol, Franz Marc, Gerhard Marcks, Marino Marini, Albert Marquet, André Masson, Henri Matisse, Roberto Matta, Almir Mavignier, Otto Meyer-Amden, Henri Michaux, Josef Mikl, Joan Miró, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Amedeo Modigliani, Piet Mondrian, TV Moore, Henry Moore, Giorgio Morandi, François Morellet, Robert Motherwell, Bruno Munari, Edvard Munch, Ernst Wilhelm Nay, Rolf Nesch, Ben Nicholson, Isamu Noguchi, Emil Nolde, Eduardo Paolozzi, Julio Le Parc, Constant Permeke, Pablo Picasso, Otto Piene, Serge Poliakoff, Jackson Pollock, Concetto Pozzati, Rainer Fetting, Robert Rauschenberg, Odilon Redon, Germaine Richier, George Rickey, Gerrit Rietveld, Jean-Paul Riopelle, Larry Rivers, Auguste Rodin, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Antonio Saura, Egon Schiele, Oskar Schlemmer, Nicolas Schöffer, Bernard Schultze, Emil Schumacher, Kurt Schwitters, Georges Seurat, Gino Severini, David Smith, Francisco Sobrino, Jesús Rafael Soto, Anton Stankowski, Tàpies, Antoni Tàpies, Fred Thieler, Jean Tinguely, Harold Town, Günther Uecker, Victor Vasarely, Emilio Vedova, Fritz Winter, Wols