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Documenta 8

12 Jun - 20 Sep 1987

documenta IIX
12 June – 20 September 1987
Kassel

The eighth documenta in 1987 was also the second to be organized by Manfred Schneckenburger as artistic director. It concentrated on examining art's social relevance in the field of conflict between independence and intervention, and sought to explore the points of contact between design, art and architecture. However, Schneckenburger was not solely concerned with the classic division between the freedom and the application of art. Rather, he aimed at showing art's potential to achieve change both in the areas of applied arts and in the field of social utopias, which in light of current events (one year after Chernobyl) were in a state of crisis.

Through works by various artists on war, suppression and violence, which were displayed in the rooms of the Fridericianum, Schneckenburger illustrated society's present loss of utopia. This was admirably demonstrated by Marie-Jo Lafontaine's monumental video installation “Les Larmes d'Acier” (The Tears of Steel), featuring a young, athletic man working out to the strains of a Maria Callas aria. This ingenious combination of various pathos formulas, the monumental exaggeration of the body cult and the uncanny connection between man and machine in the service of aesthetics produced a disconcerting fascination that visitors sensed both with discomfort but also enthusiasm. But also Joseph Beuys' final large installation “Blitzschlag mit Lichtschein auf Hirsch“, (the artist had died a year earlier), which appeared somewhat aloof compared to the artist's earlier emphatic awareness of change, could be interpreted in this manner. By extending the exhibition to the entire city of Kassel, a move Schneckenburger referred to as “critical interventions in the cityscape”, he intended to exemplify art's possible comments on the affairs of public life. Ian Hamilton Finlay set up a row of guillotines, which he decorated with quotations from the bloody history of the French Revolution, in a visual axis of the Baroque park grounds of the Karlsaue, thereby combining aesthetics and social upheavals along the chronological axis of the 18th century.

In sharp contrast, the artistic director's broad interpretation of art was illustrated in the Orangerie , where architecture and design were displayed in a context that cancelled the clear division between art's independence and its application. Artists' contributions and proposals varied between fatalistic designs like Austrian architects Haus-Rucker-Co's model for a museum as a final nuclear disposal site for art, and presentations in the mode of French artist Ange Leccia, who stood the latest Mercedes model on a platform without any further adornment - as a work of art.

Artistic Director:
Manfred Schneckenburger

Artists:
Marina Abramovic, Adam Noidlt Intermission, Jonathan Albert, Akademia Ruchu, Terry Allan, Juan Allende-Blin, Charles Amirkhanian, Beth Anderson, Laurie Anderson, Ida Applebroog, Ron Arad, Siah Armajani, John Armleder, Antonin Artaud, Richard Artschwager, ASA, Robert Ashley, Charles Atlas, Alice Aycock, Studio Azzurro & Compagnia Corsetti, Hugo Ball, Giacomo Balla, Richard Baquie, John La Barbara, Klarenz Barlow, Francois Bauchet, Jürgen Becker, Max Bense, Luciano Berio, Barry Bermagne, Joseph Beuys, Lapo Binazzi, Dara Birnbaum, Pierre Albert Birot, Oskar Tusquets Blanca, Karl Oskar Blase, Lyn Blumenthal, Christian Boltanski, Florian Borkenhagen, Eberhard Bosslet, Andreas Brandolini, Andrea Branzi, George Brecht, Shawn Brixley, Bazon Brock, Christine Brodbeck, Klaus vom Bruch, Heinrich Brummack, Wojciech Bruszewski, Chris Burden, Emil. F. Burian, Scott Burton, Jean-Marc Bustamante, James Lee Byars, John Cage, Robert Cahen, Francesco Cangiullo, Monty Cantsin, Ian Carr-Harris, Joëlle de la Casiniére, Georgio Cattani, Michel Chion, Velimir Chlebnikow, Henri Chopin, Henning Christiansen, City Souvenir, Carlfriedrich Claus, Cloud Chamber, Bob Cobbing, Norman Cohn, Robin Collyer, Philip Corner, Barberio Corsetti, Tony Cragg, Heinz von Cramer, Crow Dog, Leonard + Mary, Enzo Cucchi, Alvin Curran, Dawn, Paolo Deganella, Fortunato Depero, Antonio Dias, Die tödliche Doris, Charles Dodge, Reinhard Döhl, Ugo Dossi, Jürgen Drescher, François Dufrêne, Bogomir Ecker, Nicolaus Einhorn, Ulrich Eller, Ed Emshwiller, Toshikatsu Endo, Max Ernst, Etant donnés, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Luc Ferrari, Ian Hamilton Finlay, Lili Fischer, Thomas F. Fischer, Eric Fischl, Terry Flaxton, Fischli/Weiss, Bill fontana, Terry Fox, Marlies A. Franke, Gloria Friedmann, Rosa Galindo & Pedro Garhel, General Idea, Jochen Gerz, John Giorno, Gary Glassman, Vinko Globokar, Jean-Luc Godard, Heiner Goebbels, Ulrich Görlich, Jack Goldstein, Malcolm Goldstein, Zvi Goldstein, Leon Golub, Peter Gordon, Antony Gormley, Gorillla Tapes, Peter Greenham, Robert Grosvenor, Group Material, Glenn Gould, Ingo Günther, Brion Gysin, Hans Haacke, Gusztáv Hámos, Peter Handke, Sten Hanson, Ferdinand Hardekopf, Ludwig Harig, Helen Mayer-Harrison, Newton Harrison, Raoul Hausmann, Haus-Rucker-Co, RIP Hayman, Doris Sorrel Hays, Heinrich Mucken, Helmut heissenbüttel, Hans G. Helms, Pierre Henry, Albert Hien, Dick Higgins, Gary Hill, Ake Hodell, Gavin Hodge, Hans Hollein, Jenny Holzer, Nan Hoover, Toine Horvers, Madelon Hookaas, Stephan Huber, Richard Huelsenbeck, Stephan von Huene, Hans Ulrich Humpert, Isidore Isou, Arata Isozaki, Sanja Ivecovic, Alfredo Jaar, Ernst Jandl, Marcel Janko, Alfred Jarry, Sergej Jesenin, Magdalena Jetelová, Bengt Emil Johnson, Tom Johnson, Joan Jonas, Arsenije Jovanovic, Rolf Julius, Patricia Jünger, Mauricio Kagel, Wassily Kandinsky, Allan Kaprow, Dani Karavan, Tadashi Kawamata, Niek Kemps, Anselm Kiefer, Jürgen Klauke, Norbert Klassen, Josef Paul Kleihues, Astrid Klein, Florian Kleinefenn, Michael Klier, Monoca Klingler, Carol-Ann Klonarides, Imi Knoebel, Laura Knott, Alison Knowles, Komar & Melamid, Ko nakejima, Richard Kostelanetz, Richard Kriesche, Ferdinand Kriwet, Harry de Kroon, Alaksej Krucenych, Barbara Kruger, Krypton, Christina Kubisch, Shigeko Kubota, Klaus Kumrow, Ilmar Labaan, Marie-Jo Lafontaine, Wolfgang Laib, Nikolaus Lang, Bertrand Lavier, Ange Leccia, Maurice Lemaître, Les Levine, Annea Lockwood, Joan Logue, Robert Longo, Arrigo Lora-Totino, Lord Chip, Alvin Lucier, Wolfgang Luy, Jackson McLow, Magazzini Criminali, Liz Magor, Wladimir Majakowski, Maku Idemitsu, Kasimir Malewic, Stephan Mallarmé, Chris Mann, Raoul Marek, Filippo T. Marinetti, Javier Mariscal, Stuart Marshall, Dalibor Martinis, Friederike Mayröcker, Mickey McGowan, Steve McLafferey, Bruce McLean, Alessandro Mendini, Gerhard Merz, Olaf Metzel, Branda Miller, Minus Delta t, Franz Mon, Andrej Monastyrski, Meredith Monk, Charles W. Moore, Robert Morris, Jasper Morrison, Tim Morrisen, Charles Morrow, Aleksandr Mosolow, Muchamor, Heiner Müller, Massimo Nannucci, Maurizio Nannucci, Mauricio della Nave, Joseph Nechvatal, Weselvold Nekrassow, Wolfgang Nestler, Boris Nieslony, Vladimir Nicolic, Maria Nordman, Ladislav Novak, Danyle Nyst & Jacques-Louis Nyst, Marcel Odenbach, Jürgen O. Olbrich, Pauline Olivero, Yoko Ono, Julian Opie, Anna Oppermann, Tony Oursler, Nam June Paik, Charlemagne Palestine, Oskar Pastior, Gustav Peichl, Giuseppe Penone, PENTAGON, Arthur Petronio, Francis Picabia, Pablo Picasso, Steve Piccolo, Hermann Pitz, platform, Robert HP Platz, Fabrizio Plessi, Paul Pörtner, Wolfgang Preikschat, Dmitri Prigow, Bernhard Prinz, proT, Carlo Quartucci, David Rabinowitch, Norbert Radermacher, Horaţiu Rădulescu, Società Raffaello Sanzio, Fritz Rahmann, Raskin Stichting, Dan Reves, Bruno Reichlin, Fabio Reinhart, Guglielmo Renzi, Gerhard Richter, Joachim Ringelnatz, Amadeo Roldán, Tim Rollins & KOS, Ulrike Rosenbach, Rachel Rosenthal, Aldo Rossi, Jerome Rothenberg, Rübenspäher, Lew Rubinstein, Ulrich Rückriem, Eugeniusz Rudnik, Gerhard Rühm, Tomás Ruller, Steve Rupppendahl, Luigi Russolo, Walther Ruttmann, Annamaria Sala, Marzio Sala, John Sanborn, Denis Santachiara, Carles Santos Ventura, Jurij Saporin, Julião Sarmento, Erik Satie, Pierre Schaeffer, R. Murray Schafer, Paul Scheerbart, David Schein, Winfried Scheurer, Arleen Schloss, Dieter Schnebel, Helmut Schober, Rob Scholte, Alf Schuler, Thomas Schulz, Thomas Schütte, Buky Schwartz, Fritz Schwegler, Kurt Schwitters, Walter Serner, Richard Serra, Michel seuphor, Ferran Garcia Sevilla, Roman Signer, SITE, Michael Smith, Snowball Project, Susana Solano, Ettore Sottsass, Adriano Spatola, Serge Spitzer, Klaus Staeck, Elsa Stansfield, Philippe Starck, Ronald Steckel, Lisa Steele, Gertrude Stein, Florian Steinbiß, Demetrio Stratos, Akio Suzuki, Mark Tansey, Anne Tardos, Relly Tarlo & Jacoba Bedaux, Ilse Teipelke, Nahum Tevet, Kim Tomczak, TOTEM, George Trakas, Triple Vision, Nakai Tsuneo, Tzadyk Kohayn, Tristan Tzara, Ulay, Micha Ullman, Oswald Mathias Ungers, Edgar Varése, Ruggero Vasary, Woody Vasulka, Edin Velez, Jan Vercruysse, Dziga Vertov, Jaques Vieille, Xavier Vilaverde, Bill Viola, Thomas Virnich, Paul de Vree, Manfred Wakolbinger, Jeff Wall, Franz Erhard Walther, David Ward, Zibigiew Warpechowski, Stefan Wewerka, Robert Wilson, Michael Witlatschil, Krzysztof Wodiczko, Silvio Wolf, Erich Wonder, Wolf Wondratschek, Bill Woodrow, Paul Wühr, Stephan Wunderlich, Mika Yoshizawa, Graham Young, Wilhelm Zobel
 

Tags: Marina Abramović, Laurie Anderson, Ida Applebroog, Ron Arad, Siah Armajani, John Armleder, Antonin Artaud, Richard Artschwager, Charles Atlas, Alice Aycock, Giacomo Balla, Joseph Beuys, Dara Birnbaum, Christian Boltanski, Eberhard Bosslet, Andrea Branzi, George Brecht, Klaus vom Bruch, Chris Burden, Scott Burton, Jean-Marc Bustamante, James Lee Byars, John Cage, Ian Carr-Harris, Henri Chopin, Carlfriedrich Claus, Tony Cragg, Enzo Cucchi, Fortunato Depero, António Dias, Jürgen Drescher, François Dufrêne, Bogomir Ecker, Toshikatsu Endo, Max Ernst, Ian Hamilton Finlay, Eric Fischl, Bill Fontana, Terry Fox, Gloria Friedmann, Jochen Gerz, John Giorno, Jean Luc Godard, Jack Goldstein, Leon Golub, Antony Gormley, Robert Grosvenor, Ingo Gunther, Brion Gysin, Hans Haacke, Newton Harrison, Helen Mayer Harrison, Haus-Rucker-Co, Raoul Hausmann, Albert Hien, Dick Higgins, Gary Hill, Hans Hollein, Jenny Holzer, Nan Hoover, Stephan Huber, General Idea, Alfredo Jaar, C.T. Jasper, Magdalena Jetelová, Joan Jonas, Rolf Julius, Wassily Kandinsky, Allan Kaprow, Tadashi Kawamata, Anselm Kiefer, Jürgen Klauke, Astrid Klein, Imi Knoebel, Alison Knowles, Richard Kriesche, Ferdinand Kriwet, Barbara Kruger, Christina Kubisch, Shigeko Kubota, Marie-Jo Lafontaine, Wolfgang Laib, Bertrand Lavier, Ange Leccia, Les Levine, Robert Longo, Alvin Lucier, Liz Magor, Dalibor Martinis, Group Material, Bruce McLean, Komar & Melamid, Alessandro Mendini, Gerhard Merz, Olaf Metzel, TV Moore, Robert Morris, Maurizio Nannucci, Maria Nordman, Marcel Odenbach, Yoko Ono, Julian Opie, Anna Oppermann, Tony Oursler, Nam June Paik, Charlemagne Palestine, Giuseppe Penone, Francis Picabia, Pablo Picasso, Hermann Pitz, Fabrizio Plessi, Bernhard Prinz, David Rabinowitch, Norbert Radermacher, Gerhard Richter, Ulrike Rosenbach, Aldo Rossi, Ulrich Rückriem, Gerhard Rühm, Luigi Russolo, Julião Sarmento, Manfred Schneckenburger, Rob Scholte, Alf Schuler, Thomas Schütte, Fritz Schwegler, Kurt Schwitters, Richard Serra, Garcia Sevilla, Ferrán García Sevilla, Roman Signer, Michael Smith, Susana Solano, Serge Spitzer, Mark Tansey, Micha Ullman, Jan Vercruysse, Bill Viola, Jeff Wall, Franz Erhard Walther, Franz-erhard Walther, Fischli Weiss, Robert Wilson, Krzysztof Wodiczko, Bill Woodrow